Anxiety and substance abuse. How does it happen? A glass of wine with dinner or a few drinks at a party is considered moderate alcohol consumption, and it’s not a cause for concern for most people. But if you have an anxiety disorder, you may find that it makes your anxiety symptoms worse.
Also, individuals who have an anxiety disorder are two to three times more likely to have an alcohol or substance use disorder at some time in your life than the general population. Those who suffer from anxiety and substance abuse should find help immediately.
About 20% of Americans with anxiety or a mood disorder such as depression also have an alcohol or other substance use disorder (SUD). And about 20% of people with a SUD also have an anxiety or mood disorder.
Many national surveys have found that about half of the people who suffer a mental illness during their lives will also experience a substance use disorder, and vice versa. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) frequently overlaps with other behavioral problems such as depression, other anxiety disorders, and substance use disorder.
When you have a substance use problem and a mental health condition, it is called a co-occurring disorder, comorbid condition, or dual diagnosis. The disorders occur either at the same time or one right after the other.
Substance abuse and mental health disorders are closely connected.
Although some substance abuse can cause extended psychotic reactions, one doesn’t directly cause the other. However:
Most people with a SUD or anxiety disorder have one without the other, but having both becomes a dangerous cycle. The symptoms of one can make the symptoms of the other worse.
The co-occurrence of substance abuse (especially alcohol abuse) is common among people with a social anxiety disorder. People with this disorder claim that alcohol helps ease their social anxiety. In reality, it often makes it worse. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) usually develops after the beginning of this disorder.
People with GAD are anxious about major life issues as well as minor day-to-day stresses. GAD is known to overlap with other anxiety disorders and substance disorders. Individuals with GAD use substances to avoid constant worrying.
Substance abuse and PTSD often occur together. People suffering from PTSD often use alcohol or drugs to try to ease their anxiety, but substance use can increase their symptoms. Mental health professionals treat PTSD and substance abuse together because PTSD symptoms can cause a SUD relapse.
Alcohol or drugs frequently cause panic attacks. Having panic disorder is a risk for relapse among those with a substance use disorder. Alcohol abuse commonly starts before or at the same time as panic disorder symptoms.
Decades of research have shown that anxiety disorders and substance use disorders co-occur at higher rates than would be expected by chance alone. Anxiety and SUDs are among the most frequent psychiatric problems in the U.S.
Regardless of the way the comorbidity between anxiety and substance use disorders integrate, the pathways together lead to mutual maintenance where each disorder bolsters the other. The mutual maintenance of the comorbidity has shown that anxiety disorders are related to increased severity of lifetime AUD.
And the presence of a SUD can affect the course of anxiety disorders. A 12-year study revealed that the presence of a SUD is associated with a decreased recovery rate and increased probability or a recurrence of general anxiety disorder. It also heightened the risk of suicide in patients with panic disorder compared to patients with panic disorder and no SUD.
Risk factors for future SUD in people with anxiety disorders are:
There are few studies on comorbidity among adolescents, but research shows that adolescents with SUDs also have high rates of co-occurring mental illness. More than 60% of adolescents in substance use disorder treatment programs also meet the diagnostic benchmark for another mental illness.
Although drug use and addiction can occur at any time in your life, drug use usually starts in adolescence. Coincidentally, this is also when the first signs of mental illness commonly appear. From about the ages of 18 to 25 years, people with co-occurring disorders need integrated support and treatment to help them get through the stressful changes in education, work, and relationships during those years.
Having a mental disorder in childhood or adolescence can increase the risk of later drug use and a SUD. This shows that better diagnosis of youth mental illness might help reduce the comorbidity. Other research shows that youth develop inward disorders like depression and anxiety before developing SUDs.
It is difficult to diagnose a SUD and a co-occurring mental health disorder. It often takes time to figure out what might be a mental issue and what might be a drug or alcohol problem.
Signs and symptoms also change depending on the mental health problem and the type of drug being used.
There are some general warning signs that you may have a comorbid disorder:
Denial is common in substance abuse, and it often complicates a dual diagnosis.
It’s difficult for an individual to admit how dependent he is on alcohol or drugs, or how much they are affecting his life. It frequently occurs in mental disorders too. Symptoms of depression or anxiety can be frightening, so they are often ignored with the hope that they will go away.
Some people are ashamed or afraid of being seen as weak if they admit they have a problem. But substance abuse and mental health issues can happen to anyone, and admitting you have a problem is the first step to solving it.
The best treatment for co-occurring disorders is a consolidated approach.
This means the substance abuse problem and the anxiety disorder are treated simultaneously. Which disorder came first doesn’t matter. Long-term recovery depends on getting treatment for both disorders at the same time and by the same treatment provider or team.
Treatment for your mental health problem may include:
Treatment for your SUD may include:
Some of the complicating factors to having both conditions are:
Also called “talk therapy” is needed to help the person understand why he became a substance abuser and what the underlying problem is. Therapy with a therapist and support group therapy can be helpful in both substance abuse recovery and managing anxiety.
CBT has shown to be effective in the treatment of many anxiety disorders. It can be considered as an effective alternative to drug treatment. Or it can be used along with drug treatment and psychotherapy.
According to Michael Otto, Ph.D., of Harvard University, a combination of medication and CBT may provide the best patient outcomes. When using medications in combination with CBT, it’s important not to use the medication on an as-needed basis. Patients need to learn to use CBT strategies to control breakthrough anxiety.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy targets dysfunctional chains of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The therapy is focused on learning other ways of responding. Interventions involve breaking the anxiety experience into understandable parts and providing a model for change.
The use of non-medical treatments should be emphasized in people with SUDs. They become used to responding to any anxiety with the use of a pill. It’s important to teach coping strategies.
However, the idea of combining the programs used in the treatment of both disorders to create a treatment tailored to the specific person has received attention in recent years. An optimal pharmacological medium for treating a dually diagnosed person would be one with low abuse potential. It needs to be safe in overdose or if taken with a substance of abuse.
Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have shown to be effective in the treatment of many anxiety disorders.
If the person has a severe long-term SUD, then detoxification may be necessary. Withdrawal symptoms can be very painful, physically, and emotionally, occasionally leading to psychosis. It’s best to do this under medical supervision.
Helping someone you care about with substance use and a mental health disorder can be a rocky road. Resistance is common, and the path to recovery can be long.
You need to learn to accept what you can do and what you can’t do. You can’t force someone to remain sober, and you can’t make them take their medication or go to appointments.
These are some of the things you can do to make sure you don’t lose yourself in the process:
Other people have done it and you can as well. You are a unique person so you will require a unique treatment program. But you are not so unique that you can’t do it. At Daylight Recovery Services, we have a dedicated, professional staff. They will be able to get you through this complicated condition and on your way to a healthy future.
You should give yourself the chance to be free of that weight you’re carrying around. Our addiction specialists are available 24 hours a day. If you need help, have questions, or just need contact with someone who understands, contact us here.